Good morning I'm Ellen Dunham JONES I'm a professor in the College of Architecture and also co-hosting the search committee and it is my delightful privilege to introduce Doug Allen who will be kind of kicking us off and really telling us we can't there could not be a more perfect person. I think to open up this symposium Doug is a Fellow of the a S.L.A. American Society of landscape architects he was the the interim dean of the College of Architecture where he's also been a professor for many many years. He has taught a legendary course on the history of urban form to over five thousand students. Across Georgia Tech and we just couldn't be more proud embodying really the spirit of Frederick Law Olmstead more than any other faculty member that I know at Georgia Tech. I would like to invite Doug to give us some opening remarks and kick it up like you know him and I just want to echo what school charity the rose and said and that is thank you Mark master and master family. Gary Schuster who was provost here for a number of years in the interim president for a while once asked me if I had ever seen lions hunt and I said Well only on television. I don't know what do you mean by that he said well you know they're all lying around as an uncoordinated group looking themselves and scratching their backs and so forth and you drop an antelope in the middle. And suddenly they become this highly organized unit coordinated unit cooperating with one another and in pursuit of a single goal and what you need to find dog is an animal read yeah I think this may be an animal. OK And I say that because it it it offers an opportunity sense own stead was the founder of my profession and as far as I know I'm the only landscape architect on the faculty. I think I am anywhere it Georgia Tech and the he really founded my profession. You know there was no such thing till he came along and so I think that the what. What he did his real genius was in the ability to figure out what was needed to solve a particular kind of problem and then assemble the people and the resources necessary to solve those problems and along the way he usually attempted to do what any good poet does which is to sort of Tagamet a language of poetic language onto ordinary language in other words a sewer can also become a parkway. So the so I want to thank you. Because I think this will have repercussions long after most of us in the room actually or a longer George attack. I I want to just set the stage a little bit and not talk too much because I know what some of the people here will be. Talking about and they can do it much better than I can but I do want to kind of set the stage for the proceedings and that is that owns Ted was born in eight hundred twenty two outside of Hartford Connecticut in the Connecticut River Valley. He died in one thousand three think about that time period New England in eighteen twenty two was a rural pre-industrial landscape and by nineteen zero three. It had converted by and large to an industrial urban landscape and or problems that came along with that that he enumerated in his Elizabeth MacDonald in hours trying to tease this out last night. I'm going to go home. Look it up and I failed to do so. I believe it was his eight hundred seventy one address to the American Social Science Association in which he sort of points out what he believed to be the fundamental problems of the day and that is that without great cities. You don't have cultural opportunities you don't have educational opportunities you don't have health care you don't have all of the things that cities provide because of the concentration of economic activity on the other hand. So these were pretty much a mess. I mean there were places that could kill you because of the toxic material that was I mean. London is sort of the example par excellence here with cholera epidemics in the late eighteenth forty's and early eighteenth fifty's and Jon Snow The sort of grandfather of the Godfather I guess of epidemiology is a wonderful book about the Broad Street pump and John Snow and how he sort of playing Sherlock Holmes really how he sort of. Figured out in fact that cholera was a water borne I guess bacteria right. Bacterium and he was vilified by his colleagues and almost thrown out of his profession medical profession because at the time everybody believed that cholera was something you inhaled miasma of the vapors. And of course part of that had to do with the fact that the Thames was so polluted that it was the year of the great stink where people could not even cross the bridges on foot because of the odor of human waste that was that was in the in the water capsule waiting sewers providing fresh water separating out all of the necessary but infrastructure and doing so in a way that not only save people's lives. It was able to actually sustain the growth of London over a long period of time is something that John Snow and Olmsted in this country. Both were involved in I think that there are three things if we look at the twentieth century and ask ourselves the question What is the legacy that we inherited in the twentieth century from the nineteenth century there were really three things and Olmsted played a major role in the creation of all three the first was the public park. This is not simply about nature in the city. This is about a new kind of public space for a new kind of public. If you look at you know the form of this these nineteenth century public parks they didn't lead to the palace. They didn't lead to the church. They didn't lead to the king or to they were free and empty and open to suggestion to be inhabited by a variety of people in the. Widest possible or a of activities that one can conceive of I was just in New York last week stop by Central Park and it's still being used exactly that way. It's just amazing sad from the fags absolutely beautiful. The second thing is the parkway which really is remarkable invention a new kind of street which was piggybacked onto a concept of a park and a sewer system the sewer. Of course being the Back Bay fans but but this new kind of Parkway and Professor McDonnell will talk a little bit about parkways as in a few moments today that you know this time we become sort of confused. I think as to what park ways are we tend to think of them today at least it seems that I'll leave Georgia out of this but most departments of transportation seem to think a parkway is an interstate highway with a median in the middle right and maybe a tree here or there when the manual calls them fixed hazardous the tree is a fixed hazardous object of all it was amazing. I fixed hazardous objects. Yet I have to get a permit to cut one down in my yard that I planted. I mean so obviously there is a public interest in the fact that I have this tree in my yard that I need to take down because it's going to take over and the third thing is the plan garden suburb which attempted I think was his attempt to combine the best aspects of rural life and the village life of new. With urban life Riverside Illinois is of course the prototype with his partner at the time. Calvert Fox partnership split up. Unfortunately. But those three things continued on into the twentieth century and if we look at. I think we could parachute into almost any American city today and we would find that. Those parts of cities that contain these three elements in some intentional relationship put it that way. Are the best parts of our cities and and I think that with the creation of able to share it it it it. It provides us with an opportunity. Between the college architecture ins and the Civil Environmental Engineering to do some great things.