Correlation of Flip Chip Underfill Process Parameters and Material Properties with In-Process Stress Generation
Wong, C. P.
Baldwin, Daniel F.
Selman, Paul J.
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Electronic packaging designs are moving toward fewer levels of packaging to enable miniaturization and to increase performance of electronic products. One such package design is flip chip on board (FCOB). In this method, the chip is attached face down directly to a printed wiring board (PWB). Since the package is comprised of dissimilar materials, the mechanical integrity of the flip chip during assembly and operation becomes an issue due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the chip, PWB, and interconnect materials. To overcome this problem, a rigid encapsulant (underfill) is introduced between the chip and the substrate. This reduces the effective CTE mismatch and reduces the effective stresses experienced by the solder interconnects. The presence of the underfill significantly improves long term reliability. The underfill material, however, does introduce a high level of mechanical stress in the silicon die. The stress in the assembly is a function of the assembly process, the underfill material, and the underfill cure process. Therefore, selection and processing of underfill material is critical to achieving the desired performance and reliability. The effect of underfill material on the mechanical stress induced in a flip chip assembly during cure was presented in previous publications. This paper studies the effect of the cure parameters on a selected commercial underfill and correlates these properties with the stress induced in flip chip assemblies during processing.