Quantum Mechanical Effects on MOSFET Scaling
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This thesis describes advanced modeling of nanoscale bulk MOSFETs incorporating critical quantum mechanical effects such as gate direct tunneling and energy quantization of carriers. An explicit expression of gate direct tunneling for thin gate oxides has been developed by solving the Schroinger equation analytically. In addition, the impact of different gate electrode as well as gate insulation materials on the gate direct tunneling is explored. This results in an analytical estimation of the potential solutions to excessive gate leakage current. The energy quantization analysis involves the derivation of a quantum mechanical charge distribution model by solving the coupled Poisson and Schroinger equations. Based on the newly developed charge distribution model, threshold voltage and subthreshold swing models are obtained. A transregional drain current model which takes into account the quantum mechanical correction on device parameters is derived. Results from this model show good agreement with numeric simulation results of both long-channel and short-channel MOSFETs.The models derived here are used to project MOSFET scaling limits. Tunneling and quantization effects cause large power dissipation, low drive current, and strong sensitivities to process variation, which greatly limit CMOS scaling. Developing new materials and structures is imminent to extend the scaling process.