Ultra Low-Loss and Wideband Photonic Crystal Waveguides for Dense Photonic Integrated Systems
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This thesis reports on a new design of photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) to achieve large guiding bandwidth, linear dispersion, single-mode behavior, good coupling efficiency to dielectric waveguides, and small loss. The design is based on using the linear dispersion region of one PCW in the photonic bandgap (PBG) of another PCW. While perturbing the period can result in a PCW with linear dispersion and large guiding bandwidth, it introduces an odd mode at those frequencies, as well. By using another perturbation scheme, it is shown that single-mode behavior can also be achieved. The linear dispersion of these waveguides and their operation at lower frequencies of the PBG, where the density of states of radiation modes is smaller, gives rise to very small loss coefficients as verified experimentally. Full characterization of a waveguide requires the measurement of not only the transmission coefficient, but also the dispersion and spectral phase. We have developed a real-time characterization technique based on spectral interferometry with femtosecond laser pulses at optical communication wavelengths to measure the spectral phase of waveguides. This haracterization technique can be used to study fast dynamics in timevarying structures and makes the alignment easy.