Implementation and Applications of an Anti-Collision Differential-Offset Spread Spectrum RFID System
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This report documents the design, construction, and implementation of a differential-offset spread spectrum RFID system, to avoid the problem of anti-collision interference from multiple RFID tags. Currently in industry, this problem is handled by establishing a two way communication link between the tags and the interrogator. The proposed system eliminates the need for the excessive hardware use to create this link, and therefore drastically reduces the cost of each tag. Not only is this system cheaper to implement but it is faster, requires less power, and by the nature of the design contains an inherent encryption scheme for the data being transmitted. Specialized RFID tags were designed and fabricated in order to produce a pseudo random code unique to each tag. The design presented in this document allowed simultaneous interrogation of up to 255 tags within one sensing environment. Once queried, the tags then modulate the incoming signal from the interrogator with their own sequence, and reflect the signal back to the interrogator. What the interrogator then receives is a combination of backscatter from all of the tags within the sensing environment. Specialized software written in Matlab and LabView uses these unique sequences to isolate the data from a desired tag away from the sea of information being transmitted from every tag. Using this system, numerous applications for experiments and measurements can be devised. One such application this thesis focuses on is the use of this system to simultaneously measure signal strengths from multiple diversity antennas in order to optimize their position and orientation. Currently, the majority of antenna diversity measurements are taken by measuring the signal strength of a given configuration one antenna at a time. By using the anti-collision RFID system proposed above, the signal strength produced by both antennas can be measured and recorded simultaneously to provide a true representation of their combined performance. This measurement can be used to find the optimal configuration for multiple antennas. This thesis will fully explore the theories and procedures behind creating this system, and will provide the results and analysis of its performance.