Quantification of Hofmeister Effects on Enzyme Deactivation and Amyloid Protein Stability
Broering, James M.
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Protein stability plays an important role in a wide variety of settings ranging from industrial processes where proteins are used as biocatalysts to medical settings where misfolded proteins are implicated in disease. Understanding protein stability will allow design of improved bioprocess and pharmaceutical formulations as well as aid in the development of therapies for protein-based diseases. The effects of dissolved salts on protein kinetic stability are studied here. We find that ion-solvent interactions, characterized by the Jones-Dole B-viscosity coefficient, are strong indicators of salt effects on protein deactivation. This finding is used to develop a model for predicting protein deactivation in salt solutions in terms of two competing processes. Since protein unfolding and aggregation can lead to a number of protein misfolding diseases, we test the applicability of our model for describing salt effects on transthyretin aggregation. As the factors contributing to protein stability become more understood, the use of enzymes as biocatalyst for industrial process will increase, and the need for enzymes active in a wide range of reaction media will increase. We have developed a process using an enzyme in combination with organic-aqueous tunable solvents (OATS) which allows for monophasic reaction of the enzyme with hypdrophobic substrates. The reaction mixture can be separated into two phases by the addition of carbon dioxide pressure. This separation allows for both convenient recovery of the hydrophobic reaction product from the organic phase as well as recycle of the enzyme in the aqueous phase. Overall reaction conversions of 80% and little enzyme activity loss are observed after six reaction cycles.