Optical Properties of Superlattice Photonic Crystals
Neff, Curtis Wayne
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Photonic band gap materials, commonly referred to as photonic crystals (PCs), have been a topic of great interest for almost two decades due to their promise of unprecedented control over the propagation and generation of light. We report investigations of the optical properties of a new PC structure based upon a triangular lattice in which adjacent [i, j] rows of holes possess different properties, creating a superlattice (SL) periodicity. Symmetry arguments predicted and quot;band folding and quot; and band splitting behaviors, both of which are direct consequences of the new basis that converts the Brillouin zone from hexagonal (six-fold) to rectangular (two-fold). Plane wave expansion and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical calculations were used to explore the effects of the new structure on the photonic dispersion relationship of the SL PC. Electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma dry etching were used to fabricate 1 mm2 PC areas (lattice constant, a =358 nm and 480 nm) with hole radius ratios ranging from 1.0 (triangular) to 0.585 (r2/r1 = 73.26 nm/125.26 nm) on Silicon-on-insulator wafers. The effects of modifying structural parameters (such as hole size, lattice constant, and SL strength) were measured using the coupled resonant band technique, confirming the SL symmetry arguments and corroborating the band structure calculations. Analysis of the dispersion contours of the static SL (SSL) PC predicted both giant refraction (change in beam propagation angle of 110 for an 8 change in incident angle) and superprism behavior (change in beam propagation angle of 108 for a 12% change in normalized frequency) in these structures. Dynamic control of these refraction effects was also investigated by incorporating electro-optic and nonlinear materials into the SSL PC structure. Wave vector analyses on these structures predicted a change in beam propagation angle and gt;96 when the refractive index inside of the holes of the structure changed from n=1.5 to 1.7. Through this investigation, the first successful measurement of the band folding effect in multidimensional PCs as well as the first explicit measurement of the dielectric band of a 2D PC were reported. In addition, the SL PCs impact on new opto-electronic devices was explored.