Design, Modeling, and Optimization of Compact Broadband and Multiband 3D System-On-Package (SOP) Antenna Architectures for Wireless Communications and Millimeter-Wave Applications
DeJean, Gerald Reuben
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In recent years, the miniaturization of cell phones and computers has led to a requirement for antennas to be small and lightweight. Antennas, desired to operate in the WLAN frequency range, often possess physical sizes that are too large for integration with radio-frequency (RF) devices. When integrating antennas into three-dimensional (3D) system-on-package (SOP) transceivers, the maintenance of a compact size also provides isolation from other devices, hence, surface wave propagation or high dielectric constant materials such as low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) does not affect nearby components of the transceiver such as filters, baluns, and other embedded passives. Therefore, the application of design methods is necessary for realizing compact antennas in the wireless community that can be integrated to RF packages. Furthermore, it is essential that these compact antennas maintain acceptable performance characteristics, such as impedance bandwidth, low cross-polarization, and high efficiency. In addition, the analysis of circuit modeling techniques that could be used to obtain a better understanding of the physical phenomena of the antenna is quite necessary as modules become more and more complex. Based on these requirements, the focus of this research is to improve the design of compact antennas for wireless communications, wireless local area networks (WLAN), and millimeter-wave applications by using time-domain electromagnetic and circuit modeling techniques and optimizations. These compact antenna designs are applied to practical wireless communications systems such as global system of mobile communications (GSM), Bluetooth Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) devices, IEEE802.11a WLAN, and Local Multipoint Distribution Systems (LMDS) applications. Parametric analyses are conducted to study critical parameters that may affect the antenna designs. Moreover, optimizations are performed to optimize the structures, and measured results are presented to validate design techniques.