The mixed-mode reliability stress of Silicon-Germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors
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The objective of the dissertation is to combine the recent Mixed-Mode reliability stress studies into a single text. The thesis starts with a review of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor fundamentals, development trends, and the conventional reliability stress paths used in industry, after which the new stress path, Mixed-Mode stress, is introduced. Chapter 2 is devoted to an in-depth discussion of damage mechanisms that includes the impact ionization effct and the selfheating effect. Chapter 3 goes onto the impact ionization effect using two-dimensional calibrated MEDICI simulations. Chapter 4 assesses the reliability of SiGe HBTs in extreme temperature environments by way of comprehensive experiments and MEDICI simulations. A comparison of the device lifetimes for reverse-EB stress and mixed-mode stress indicates different damage mechanisms govern these phenomena. The thesis concludes with a summary of the project and suggestions for future research in chapter 5.