Indoor MIMO Channels with Polarization Diversity: Measurements and Performance Analysis
Anreddy, Vikram R.
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This thesis deals with dual-polarized multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels, an important issue for the practical deployment of multiple antenna systems. The MIMO architecture has the potential to dramatically improve the performance of wireless systems. Much of the focus of research has been on uni-polarized spatial MIMO configurations, the performance of which, is a strong function of the inter-element spacing. Thus the current trend of miniaturization, seems to be at odds with the implementation of spatial configurations in portable handheld devices. In this regard, dual-polarized antennas present an attractive alternative for realizing higher order MIMO architectures in compact devices. Unlike spatial channels, in the presence of polarization diversity, the subchannels of the MIMO channel matrix are not identically distributed. They differ in terms of average received power, envelope distributions, and correlation properties. In this thesis, we report on an indoor channel measurement campaign conducted at 2.4 GHz, to measure the copolarized and cross-polarized subchannels, under line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) channel conditions. The measured data is then analyzed, to draw a fair comparison between spatial and dual-polarized MIMO systems, in terms of channel characteristics and achievable capacity. The main drawback of the MIMO architecture is that the gain in capacity comes at a cost of increased hardware complexity. Antenna selection is a technique using which we can alleviate this cost. We emphasize that this strategy is all the more relevant for compact devices, which are often constrained by complexity, power and cost. Using theoretical analysis and measurement results, this thesis investigates the performance of antenna selection in dual-polarized MIMO channels. Our results indicate that, antenna selection when combined with dual-polarized antennas, is an effective, low-complexity solution to the problem of realizing higher order MIMO architectures in compact devices.