A First Principles Based Methodology for Design of Axial Compressor Configurations
MetadataShow full item record
Axial compressors are widely used in many aerodynamic applications. The design of an axial compressor configuration presents many challenges. Until recently, compressor design was done using 2-D viscous flow analyses that solve the flow field around cascades or in meridional planes or 3-D inviscid analyses. With the advent of modern computational methods it is now possible to analyze the 3-D viscous flow and accurately predict the performance of 3-D multistage compressors. It is necessary to retool the design methodologies to take advantage of the improved accuracy and physical fidelity of these advanced methods. In this study, a first-principles based multi-objective technique for designing single stage compressors is described. The study accounts for stage aerodynamic characteristics, rotor-stator interactions and blade elastic deformations. A parametric representation of compressor blades that include leading and trailing edge camber line angles, thickness and camber distributions was used in this study A design of experiment approach is used to reduce the large combinations of design variables into a smaller subset. A response surface method is used to approximately map the output variables as a function of design variables. An optimized configuration is determined as the extremum of all extrema. This method has been applied to a rotor-stator stage similar to NASA Stage 35. The study has two parts: a preliminary study where a limited number of design variables were used to give an understanding of the important design variables for subsequent use, and a comprehensive application of the methodology where a larger, more complete set of design variables are used. The extended methodology also attempts to minimize the acoustic fluctuations at the rotor-stator interface by considering a rotor-wake influence coefficient (RWIC). Results presented include performance map calculations at design and off-design speed along with a detailed visualization of the flow field at design and off-design conditions. The present methodology provides a way to systematically screening through the plethora of design variables. By selecting the most influential design parameters and by optimizing the blade leading edge and trailing edge mean camber line angles, phenomenon s such as tip blockages, blade-to-blade shock structures and other loss mechanisms can be weakened or alleviated. It is found that these changes to the configuration can have a beneficial effect on total pressure ratio and stage adiabatic efficiency, thereby improving the performance of the axial compression system. Aeroacoustic benefits were found by minimizing the noise generating mechanisms associated with rotor wake-stator interactions. The new method presented is reliable, low time cost, and easily applicable to industry daily design optimization of turbomachinery blades.