Using Graphical Context to Reduce the Effects of Registration Error in Augmented Reality
Robertson, Cindy Marie
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An ongoing research focus in Augmented Reality (AR) is to improve tracking and display technology in order to minimize registration errors between the graphical display and the physical world. However, registration is not always necessary for users to understand the intent of an augmentation, especially in situations where the user and the system have shared semantic knowledge of the environment. I hypothesize that adding appropriate graphical context to an augmentation can ameliorate the effects of registration errors. I establish a theoretical basis supporting the use of context based on perceptual and cognitive psychology. I introduce the notion of Adaptive Intent-Based Augmented Reality (i.e. augmented reality systems that adapt their augmentations to convey the correct intent in a scene based on an estimate of the registration error in the system.) I extend the idea of communicative intent, developed for desktop graphical explanation systems by Seligmann and Feiner (Seligmann &Feiner, 1991), to include graphical context cues, and use this as the basis for the design of a series of example augmentations demonstrating the concept. I show how semantic knowledge of a scene and the intent of an augmentation can be used to generate appropriate graphical context that counters the effects of registration error. I evaluate my hypothesis in two user studies based on a Lego block-placement task. In both studies, a virtual block rendered on a head-worn display shows where to place the next physical block. In the first study, I demonstrate that a user can perform the task effectively in the presence of registration error when graphical context is included. In the second, I demonstrate that a variety of approaches to displaying graphics outside the task space are possible when sufficient graphical context is added.