Investigation of Mineral Dust Aerosols - Chemistry Intractions in the Marine Environments
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Mineral dust aerosols play an important role in atmospheric chemistry through photolysis and heterogeneous uptake. Both mechanisms strongly depend on the size and composition of mineral dust. Because of the complex nature of dust, chemistry modeling commonly relies on simplified assumptions about the properties of dust particles relevant to physiochemical processes. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the impact of size-resolved composition of dust aerosols on atmospheric photochemistry. The relative importance of dust characteristics in photolysis and heterogeneous loss and the relative roles of the two mechanisms on atmospheric photochemistry are investigated. A new block of spectral aerosol optical properties was developed and incorporated into the tropospheric ultraviolet and visible radiation transfer code in order to calculate spectral actinic fluxes and photolysis rates, J-values. The Fuchs-Sutugin approximation was employed to compute mass transfer from gas to dust mineral species and heterogeneous loss rate, kloss,j. The J-values and kloss,j were incorporated into a one-dimensional photochemistry model to simulate the diurnal cycle of a vertical profile of photochemical species. Several cases of dust loading were considered in the clean and polluted marine environments. A size-resolved mineralogical composition was constructed by selecting a range of the mass fraction of the three main mineral species such as iron oxide-containing clay minerals, carbonate-containing species, and quartz. This work demonstrates that differences in microphysical and chemical properties of mineral dust lead to the important changes in spectral optical properties, J-values, and kloss,j. It also shows that non-linear relationships of photochemical species with two mechanisms result in various changes in the photochemical oxidant fields and that the most important factor controlling the photochemistry field is the dust size distribution, followed by the amount of mineral species with high uptake coefficients and the amount of iron oxide-clay aggregates. This work demonstrates that accounting for regional differences in microphysical and chemical properties of mineral dust will improve the assessment of the impact of mineral dust on tropospheric photochemistry. In addition, it suggests that the size and composition of mineral dust will lead to a deeper understanding of the impact of mineral dust on the global climate system.