High Performance Analog Circuit Design Using Floating-Gate Techniques
Serrano, Guillermo J.
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The programmability property of floating-gate transistors is exploited in this work to compensate for mismatch and device parameter variations in various high performance analog circuits. A careful look is taken at the characteristics and behavior of floating-gate transistors; issues such as programming, precision, accuracy, and charge retention are addressed. An alternate approach to reduce the offset voltage of the amplifier is presented. The proposed approach uses floating-gate transistors as programmable current sources that provide offset compensation while being a part of the amplifier of interest during normal operation. This results in an offset voltage cancelation that is independent of other amplifier parameters and does not dissipate additional power. Two compact programmable architectures that implement a voltage reference based on the charge difference between two floating-gate transistors are introduced. The references exhibit a low temperature coefficient (TC) as all the transistors temperature dependencies are canceled. Programming the charge on the floating-gate transistors provides the flexibility of an arbitrary accurate voltage reference with a single design and allows for a high initial accuracy of the reference. Also, this work presents a novel programmable temperature compensated current reference. The proposed circuit achieves a first order temperature compensation by canceling the negative TC of an on-chip poly resistor with the positive TC of a MOS transistor operating in the ohmic region. Programmability of the ohmic resistor enables optimal temperature compensation while programmability of the reference voltage allows for an accurate current reference for a wide range of values. Finally, this work combines the already established DAC design techniques with floating-gate circuits to obtain a high precision converter. This approach enables higher accuracy along with a substantial decrease of the die size.