Monte Carlo simulations for Homeland Security using anthropomorphic phantoms
Burns, Kimberly A.
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After a radiation dispersion device (RDD) event, there may be internally and/or externally contaminated victims. After the RDD event, victims may require immediate medical assistance prior to decontamination. The dose rates to which a healthcare provider is exposed due to the internal and external contamination of the victim were computed using Monte Carlo simulations and five anthropomorphic phantoms. The dose rates to which the victim is exposed due to his/her own external contamination were also computed. For the external contamination modeling, the contamination is assumed to be distributed over the entire exterior of the victimâ s body. The geometrical models of the human body were based on the MIRD stylized phantom. The specific isotopes considered were 60Co, 137Cs, 131I, 192Ir, and 241Am. The surface contamination was generated by creating a 2-mm thick layer adjacent to the outside of the skin of the victim and uniformly sampling the emissions of the radioactive sources throughout this volume. The attending healthcare provider was assumed to be standing 20 cm from mid-torso of the victim. The organ absorbed doses in both the contaminated individual and a healthcare professional were computed. The effective dose to the victim and the attending healthcare professional were computed using the tissue weighting factors in ICRP Publication 60. For example, the dose rate to a reference male healthcare provider from the victim six hours after the inhalation of one ALI by an adipose male victim will be 0.277 mSv/hr. In addition, the air kerma was computed at different distances from the surfaces of the victim phantom and ratios were generated for the air kerma and the effective dose due to the victim from the surface contamination on the victim.