Synthesis of tin, silver and their alloy nanoparticles for lead-free interconnect applications
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This thesis is devoted to the research and development of low processing temperature lead-free interconnect materials for microelectronic packaging applications with an emphasis on fundamental studies of nanoparticles synthesis, dispersion and oxidation prevention, and nanocomposites fabrication. Oxide-free tin (Sn), tin/silver (96.5Sn3.5Ag) and tin/silver/copper (96.5Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu) alloy nanoparticles with different sizes were synthesized by a low temperature chemical reduction method. Both size dependent melting point and latent heat of fusion of the synthesized nanoparticles were obtained. The nano lead-free solder pastes/composites created by dispersing the SnAg or SnAgCu alloy nanoparticles into an acidic type flux spread and wet on the cleaned copper surface at 220 to 230 ¡æ. This study demonstrated the feasibility of nano sized SnAg or SnAgCu alloy particle pastes for low processing temperature lead-free interconnect applications in microelectronic packaging. Surface functionalized silver nanoparticles and silver fakes were used as fillers for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) applications. During the curing of epoxy resin (150 ¡æ), the surfactants were debonded from the particles and at the same time the oxide layers on the particle surfaces were removed which facilitated the sintering of Ag nanoparticles. The contact interfaces between fillers were significantly reduced and an ultra highly conductive ECA with a resistivity of 5 ¡Á 10-6 ohm.cm was obtained. To enhance the adhesion of carbon nanotube (CNT) films to substrates, an ultra highly conductive ECA were used as a media to transfer the CNT films to copper substrates. The polymer wetted along the CNTs during curing process by the capillary force. An ohmic contact was formed between the copper substrates and the transferred CNTs. This process could overcome the serious obstacles of integration of CNTs into integrated circuits and microelectronic device packages by offering low processing temperatures and improved adhesion of CNTs to substrates. The transferred CNTs can be used to simultaneously form electrical and mechanical connections between chips and substrates.