Investigation of xBi(B’)O₃-(1 − x)PbTiO₃ and xBi(B’,B”)O₃-(1 − x)PbTiO₃ perovskite solid solutions with high transition temperatures
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he extent of BiInO₃ substitution in the perovskite system xBiInO(₃)-(1 - x)PbTiO₃ and the corresponding raise in the transition temperature were investigated using thermal analysis, dielectric measurements, x-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. Maximum tetragonal perovskite distortion (c/a = 1.082) was obtained for x = 0.20, with a corresponding Curie temperature of 582°C. Phase-pure tetragonal perovskite was obtained for x less than or equal to 0.25. Compound formation after calcining mixed oxide powders resulted in agglomerated cube-shaped tetragonal perovskite particles, which could be fired to 94.7% of theoretical density (TD). Niobium-modified BIPT ceramics with PT contents of 80% and 85% were found to possess significantly lower dielectric loss at elevated temperatures, making it possible to polarize the materials. Piezoelectric properties were measured for a 1.5 mol% Nb -0.15BI-0.85PT composition with a transition temperature of 542°C; the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient and coercive field were found to be 60 pC/N and 125 kV/cm, respectively. Compositions of xBiLaO₃-(1 − x)PbTiO₃ over the range 0 < x < 0.225 were calcined and sintered. Dielectric constant with temperature and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were in excellent agreement with respect to a Curie-like tetragonal to cubic transformations starting at 495°C for pure PbTiO₃, shifting to lower temperatures with increasing x. For compositions of x > 0.05, a second higher-temperature (∼600°C) endotherm, and matching dielectric anomaly, were consistently observed, for which there were no structural changes indicated by hot-stage x-ray diffraction. This transformation was interpreted to be similar to a Curie transformation in relaxor ferroelectrics in which localized segregation of B-site cations (below the resolution limit of x-ray diffraction) facilitated ferroelectric behavior.