Dynamics and control of mobile cranes
Vaughan, Joshua Eric
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The rapid movement of machines is a challenging control problem because it often results in high levels of vibration. As a result, flexible machines are typically moved relatively slowly to avoid such vibration. Therefore, motion-induced vibration limits the operational speed of the system. Input shaping is one method that eliminates motion-induced vibrations by intelligently designing the reference command such that system vibration is cancelled. It has been successfully implemented on a number of systems, including bridge and tower cranes. The implementation of input shaping on cranes provides a substantial increase in the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, most cranes, once erected, have limited or no base mobility. This limits their workspace. The addition of base mobility could help extend the operational effectiveness of cranes and may also expand crane functionality. Mobile cranes may also be better suited for use in harsh and/or distant environments. Teleoperation of oscillatory systems, such as cranes, then becomes another avenue for advancement of crane functionality. Base mobility in cranes presents both additional control challenges and operational opportunities. A crane with base mobility is redundantly actuated (overactuated), such that multiple combinations of actuators can be used to move a payload from one location to another. This opens the possibility for the selection of a combination of actuation that provides both rapid motion and limited system vibration. The extension of input shaping into this operational domain will provide a method to maximize effective actuation combinations. Toward addressing these issues, new multi-input shaping methods were developed and applied to a mobile, portable tower crane. During this development, a firm understanding of robust input shaping techniques and the compromises inherent to input shaper design was formed. In addition, input shaping was compared to other command generation techniques, namely lowpass and notch filtering, and proven to be superior for vibration reduction in mechanical systems. Another, new class of input shapers was also introduced that limit the input shaper induced overshoot in human operated systems. Finally, a series of crane operator studies investigated the application of input shaping techniques to teleoperated cranes. These studies suggested that input shaping is able to dramatically improve remote crane operator performance.