Efficiency of Spearcon-Enhanced Navigation of One Dimensional Electronic Menus
Palladino, Dianne K.
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This study simulated and compared cell phone contact book menu navigation using combinations of both auditory (text-to-speech and spearcons) and visual cues. A total of 127 undergraduates participated in a study that required using one of five conditions of alphabetically listed menu cues to find a target name. Participants using visual cues (either alone or combined with auditory cues) outperformed those using only auditory cues. Performance was not found to be significantly different among the three auditory only conditions. When combined with visual cues, spearcons improved navigational efficiency more than both text-to-speech cues and menus using no sound, and provided evidence for the ability of sound to enhance visual menus. Research results provide evidence applicable to efficient auditory menu creation.