Fast circular aperture synthesis in sar all-aspect target imaging
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The objective of this research is a fast circular synthetic aperture radar (F-CSAR) algorithm. Slow-time imaging distinguishes synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from its predecessor imaging radars. SAR slow-time imaging is strongly rooted in Huygens-Fresnel principle and Kirchhoff's approximation based scalar diffraction theory. Slant-plane SAR Green's function and resultant Fourier integral, unlike some Fourier integrals, cannot be analyzed using residue theory from complex analysis and Cauchy-Riemann equations yield analyticity. The asymptotic expansion of 1D and 2D Fourier integrals renders a decomposition of the Green's function leading to SAR data focusing. The research unveils Fraunhofer diffraction patterns in 2D aperture synthesis formulation corresponding to various aperture shapes including circular aperture that appears to be an optimum aperture shape from the mathematical condition in the asymptotic expansion. It is shown that these diffraction patterns may be used for refocusing of defocused images. F-CSAR algorithm is demonstrated using Householder transform recently shown to have improved error bounds and stability. Research is also carried out into various interpolation schemes. Backprojection implementation of CSAR is compared to F-CSAR and elevation coverage renders 3D reconstruction. F-CSAR is also demonstrated using GTRI T-72 tank turntable data.