Distortion-based crest factor reduction algorithms in multi-carrier transmission systems
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Distortion-based crest factor reduction (CFR) algorithms were studied in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) OFDM systems to reduce the nonlinear distortion and improve the power efficiency of the transmitter front-end. First, definitions of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAR) were clarified based on the power efficiency improvement consideration in the MIMO-OFDM systems. Next, error vector magnitude (EVM) was used as the in-band performance-evaluating metric. Statistical analysis of EVM was performed to provide concrete thresholds for the amount of allowable distortions from each source to meet EVM requirements in the standard. Furthermore, an effective CFR technique, constrained clipping, was proposed to drastically reduce the PAR while satisfying any given in-band EVM and out-of-band spectral mask constraints. Constrained clipping has low computational complexity and can be easily extended to the multiple-user OFDM environment. Finally, signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) analysis for transceiver nonlinearities in the additive white Gaussian noise channel was investigated. An analytical solution was presented for maximizing the transceiver SNDR for any given set of nonlinear transmitter polynomial coefficients. Additionally, mutually inverse pair of transceiver nonlinearities was shown to be SNDR-optimal only in the noise-free case.