Metrology of gan electronics using micro-raman spectroscopy
Beechem, Thomas E., III
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Possessing a wide band gap and large break down field, gallium nitride (GaN) is of interest for a host of high power, high frequency applications including next generation cellular base stations, advanced military radar, and WiMAX networks. Much of this interest stems from the continued development of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) that is capable of operating at sizable power densities and switching speeds. The same fields responsible for this performance, however, also elicit acute device heating and elastic loads. These induced thermomechanical loads limit both performance and reliability thus necessitating continued improvement in the management and characterization of the coupled environments. In response, this study establishes a new implementation of Raman spectroscopy capable of simultaneously measuring the operational temperature and stress in a HEMT using only the Stokes response. First, the linewidth (FWHM) of the Stokes signal is utilized to quantify the operating temperature of a HEMT independent to the influences of stress. Second, a new method, incorporating the use of the linewidth and peak position in tandem, is developed to estimate the biaxial thermoelastic stress that arises during device operation. With this capability, the HEMT's resultant load is assessed, highlighting the large role of the residual stress on the total mechanical state of the device. Subsequently, this same linewidth is leveraged to identify the distinct effect that electrical carriers have on the thermally relevant decay of longitudinal optical phonon modes. Further investigation of the lattice transport then concludes the study by way of an analytical treatment describing the significant influence of interfacial disorder on the energy transport at GaN/substrate boundaries.