Flicker noise in cmos lc oscillators
Douglas, Dale Scott
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Sources of flicker noise generation in the cross-coupled negative resistance oscillator (NMOS, PMOS, and CMOS) are explored. Also, prior and current work in the area of phase noise modeling is reviewed, including the work of Leeson, Hajimiri, Hegazi, and others, seeking the mechanisms by which flicker noise is upconverted. A Figure of Merit (FOM) methodology suitable to the 1/f3 phase noise region is also developed, which allows a new quantity, FOM1, to be defined. FOM1 is proportional to flicker noise upconverted, thus allowing the effectiveness of flicker noise upconversion suppression techniques to be evaluated, despite possibly changing bias points or tank Q, which would change phase noise and FOM in the 1/f2 region. The work of Hajimiri is extended with a simple Amplitude ISF DC component estimator for the special case of LC CMOS oscillators. A method of adaptive control of an oscillator core is presented, as well, comprised of a CMOS oscillator with a digitally adjustable N and P width, and a circuit (which is essentially a tracking ADC) which repeatedly adjusts the relative N to P width dependent on the estimate to maintain the condition of minimum flicker noise upconversion. A fixed calibration constant is sufficient to allow convergence to within 0.7dB of optimal FOM1 for all cases of N width, for a varactorless oscillator test cell. Finally, a circuit is proposed which would allow the flicker noise reduction technique of cycling to accumulation to be applied to continuous time oscillators, but is not rigorously vetted.