Investigation of the impact of turbine blade geometry on near-field microwave blade tip time of arrival measurements
Zimmer, Aline Katharina
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This study investigates the manifestation of geometric features of turbine blades in signatures of non-optical time of arrival (ToA) probes. The approach enables an evaluation of the various signal characteristics used for defining ToA for a range of airfoil geometries and provides knowledge about additional waveform characteristics. The objective of this research is to increase the accuracy of microwave ToA probes by gaining a better understanding of the microwave signals in five steps. Firstly, ToA definitions used in the past are compared. Considering accuracy, computational effort, and versatility, the constant fraction crossing definition is found to be the most accurate. Secondly, an experimental apparatus capable of measuring airfoil ToA with microwave probes and optical probes as a reference is designed and built. As a third step, a catalog of 16 turbine blade geometries is developed. Fourthly, the signatures of these turbine blades are acquired using both the optical and the microwave probes. Finally, the impact of the geometric effects on the signatures is evaluated. The quality of the microwave results is found to be highly dependent on the polarization of the microwaves. Analysis of the time domain signal shows that decreasing the blade width, increasing the chord angle, or incorporating a blade tip pocket or a varying cross-section leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the peak caused by the blade. Increasing the blade width and incorporating a chord angle leads to an increase in peak width. A frequency domain analysis is conducted on the microwave signals and verified using a synthetic signal. This analysis confirms the findings from the time domain analysis. The time domain analysis of the laser measurements shows that the spatial resolution of the laser is much higher than that of the microwave sensor. Consequently, the signal acquired with the optical setup provides a good means of defining the blade ToA. The knowledge gained in this study about the sensor and its interaction with passing blade tips of varying geometry can be used to enhance the understanding of microwave ToA measurements. This knowledge provides further insight into airfoil and engine health.