High frequency capacitive single crystal silicon resonators and coupled resonator systems
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The objective of the work presented in this thesis is to implement high-Q silicon capacitive micromechanical resonators operating in the HF, VHF and UHF frequency bands. Several variations of a fully silicon-based bulk micromachining fabrication process referred to as HARPSS have been developed, characterized and optimized to overcome most of the challenges facing application of such devices as manufacturable electronic components. Several micromechanical structures for implementation of high performance capacitive silicon resonators covering various frequency ranges have been developed under this work. Design criteria and electromechanical modeling of such devices is presented. Under this work, HF and VHF resonators with quality factors in the tens of thousands and RF-compatible equivalent electrical impedances have been implemented successfully. Resonance frequencies in the GHz range with quality factors of a few thousands and lowest motional impedances reported for capacitive resonators to date have been achieved. Several resonator coupling techniques for implementation of higher order resonant systems with possibility of extension to highly selective bandpass filters have been investigated and practically demonstrated. Finally, a wafer-level vacuum sealing technique applicable to such resonators has been developed and its reliability and hermeticity is characterized.