Quality inspection and reliability study of solder bumps in packaged electronic devices: using laser ultrasound and finite element methods
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Consumer demands are driving the current trend in the microelectronics industry to make electronic products that are miniature, fast, compact, high-density, reliable and low-cost. The use of surface mount devices (SMDs) has helped to decrease the size of electronic packages through the use of solder bump interconnections between the devices and the substrates/printed wiring boards (PWBs). Solder bumps act as not only mechanical, but also electrical interconnections between the device and the substrate/PWB. Common manufacturing defects ¨C such as open, cracked, missing, and misaligned solder bumps ¨C are difficult to detect because solder bumps are hidden between the device and the substrate/PWB after assembly. The reliability of packaged electronic devices in storage and usage is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. Therefore, quality inspection of solder bumps has become a critical process in the microelectronics industry to help ensure product quality and reliability. In this thesis, a methodology for quality evaluation and reliability study of solder bumps in electronic packages has been developed using the non-destructive and non-contact laser ultrasound-interferometric technique, finite element and statistical methods in this research work. This methodology includes the following aspects: 1) inspection pattern ¨C specific inspection patterns are created according to inspection purpose and package formats, 2) laser pulse energy density calibration ¨C specific laser pulse power and excitation laser spot size are selected in terms of package formats, 3) processing and analysis methods, including integrated analytical, finite element and experimental modal analyses approach, advanced signal processing methods and statistical analysis method, 4) approach combining modal analysis and advanced signal processing to improve measurement sensitivity of laser ultrasound-interferometric inspection technique, and 5) calibration curve using energy based simulation method and laser ultrasound inspection technique to predict thermomechanical reliability of solder bumps in electronic packages. Because of the successful completion of the research objectives, the system has been used to evaluate a broad range of solder bump defects in a variety of packaged electronic devices. The development of this system will help tremendously to improve the quality and reliability of electronic packages.