A new methodology for sizing and performance predictions of a rotary wing ejector
Moodie, Alex Montfort
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The application of an ejector nozzle integrated with a reaction drive rotor configuration for a vertical takeoff and landing rotorcraft is considered in this research. The ejector nozzle is a device that imparts energy from a high speed airflow source to a lower speed secondary airflow inside a duct. The overall nozzle exhaust mass flow rate is increased through fluid entrainment, while the exhaust gas velocity is simultaneously decreased. The exhaust gas velocity is strongly correlated to the jet noise produced by the nozzle, making the ejector a good candidate for propulsion system noise reduction. Ejector nozzles are mechanically simple in that there are no moving parts. However, coupled fluid dynamic processes are involved, complicating analysis and design. Geometric definitions of the ejector nozzle are determined through a reduced fidelity, multi-disciplinary, representation of the rotary wing ejector. The resulting rotary wing ejector geometric sizing procedure relates standard vehicle and rotor design parameters to the ejector. Additionally, a rotary wing ejector performance procedure is developed to compare this rotor configuration to a conventional rotor. Performance characteristics and aerodynamic effects of the rotor and ejector nozzle are analytically studied. Ejector nozzle performance, in terms of exit velocities, is compared to the primary reaction drive nozzle; giving an indication of the potential for noise reduction. Computational fluid dynamics are paramount in predicting the aerodynamic effects of the ejector nozzle located at the rotor blade tip. Two-dimensional, steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are implemented for sectional lift and drag predictions required for the rotor aerodynamic model associated with both the rotary wing ejector sizing and performance procedures. A three-dimensional, unsteady, RANS simulation of the rotary wing ejector is performed to study the aerodynamic interactions between the ejector nozzle and rotor. Overall performance comparisons are made between the two- and three-dimensional models of the rotary wing ejector, and a similar conventional rotor.