Protein prenylation inhibitors reveal a novel role for rhoa and rhoc in trafficking of g protein-coupled receptors through recycling endosomes
Salo, Paul David
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LPA1 lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPA1Rs) are normally present on the surface of the cell. Our initial findings were that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin and mevastatin) induce the sequestration of the G protein-coupled LPA1R in recycling endosomes, most likely by inhibiting the recycling of tonically internalized receptors. Whereas, co-addition of geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) or geranylgeraniol (GGOH) prevented atorvastatin-induced sequestration of LPA1Rs, the geranylgeranyltransferase-I inhibitor, GGTI-298, mimicked atorvastatin and induced LPA1R sequestration. This suggested that statin-induced endosomal sequestration was caused by defective protein prenylation. The likely targets of atorvastatin and GGTI-298 are the Rho family GTPases, RhoC and RhoA, since both inhibitors greatly reduced the abundance of these GTPases and since knockdown of endogenous RhoC or RhoA with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) led to endosomal sequestration of LPA1R. Knockdown of RhoC was much more potent at inducing endosomal sequestration than knockdown of either RhoA or RhoB. In contrast, atorvastatin, GGTI-298, siRNA against RhoA, B, or C did not alter the internalization or recycling of transferrin receptors, indicating that recycling of transferrin receptors is distinct from LPA1Rs. Thus, these results, for the first time, implicate RhoA and RhoC in endocytic recycling of LPA1Rs and identify atorvastatin and GGTI-298 as novel inhibitors of this process.