Structures of Oxide Nanobelts and Nanowires
Wang, Z. L. (Zhong Lin)
Dai, Z. R.
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We have recently reported the synthesis of one-dimensional nanobelt structures of ZnO, SnO₂, In₂O3, CdO, Ga₂, and PbO₂ by evaporating the desired commercial metal oxide powders at high temperatures (Science (2001), 291, 1947). The as-synthesized oxide nanobelts are pure, structurally uniform, single crystalline, and most of them free from dislocations. The beltlike morphology appears to be a unique and common structural characteristic for the family of semiconducting oxides. In the present article, we focus on the twin and stacking fault planar defects found in oxide nanobelts and nanowires although they are rarely observed. Some interesting and unique growth morphologies are presented to illustrate the roles played by surface energy and kinetics in growth. It is shown that the surfaces of the oxide nanobelts are enclosed by the low-index, low-energy crystallographic facets. The growth morphology is largely dominated by the growth kinetics.