Surface modification and chromophore attachment via ionic assembly and covalent fixation
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A reactive-ionic functional group was incorporated into the structure of fiber finishes and colorants to provide high-yield add-on and permanency. The reactive-ionic group consists of a moderately strained, cyclic ammonium group which undergoes ionic assembly on the surface of negatively charged substrates. The ionic bond is then converted to a covalent bond at elevated temperatures via a ring-opening reaction. A reactive-ionic alkyl (wax) finish was prepared from octadecanol and N-phenyl pyrrolidine then applied to a glass slide to provide a permanent, hydrophobic surface with an average contact angle increase of approximately 40°. A reactive-ionic fluorinated finish was prepared from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-octanol and N-phenyl pyrrolidine and after application served as a permanent, non-wetting, anti-stain finish for nylon carpet. A reactive-ionic chromophore (dye) was prepared from C.I. Disperse Red 1 and quinuclidine. The reactive-ionic dye was applied to cellophane and nylon films and bleached cotton, nylon and silk fabrics. The percent exhaustion for a 1% owf dyeing of silk fabric was measured to be 98% using visible light absorbance spectrophotometry. K/S values obtained from reflectance spectrophotometric measurements of a 1% owf dyeing of nylon 6,6 fabric showed a 6% color loss after solvent extraction, indicating that the dyeing was indeed permanent.