Novel hybrid organic/inorganic single-sited catalysts and supports for fine chemical and pharmaceutical intermediate synthesis
Gill, Christopher Stephen
MetadataShow full item record
The study of catalysis is a fundamental aspect of chemical engineering, as its implications affect all chemical transformations. Traditionally, catalysis has been subdivided into two areas: homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis refers to single-sited catalysts that exist in the same phase as the reaction media. These catalysts tend to be highly active and selective but often difficult to recover and reuse. In contrast, heterogeneous catalysts are typically multi-sited catalysts that exist in a different phase from the reaction media. These catalysts tend to be less active and selective than their homogeneous counterparts. However, the vast majority of industrial scale catalysts are heterogeneous because they can be easily separated, making them easily implemented in continuous processes, allowing for efficient, large scale operations. Due to the limitations of traditional homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, researchers have increasingly investigated hybrid catalysts that incorporate aspects of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This is accomplished via immobilization of homogeneous catalyst analogues onto solid-phase supports, thereby preserving the activity and selectivity of homogeneous catalysts while allowing for facile recovery and reuse from the insoluble, heterogeneous support. A variety of systems is presented here including organic and organometallic catalysts immobilized on organic and inorganic supports. Five cases are included. The first discusses utilization of supported acid and base catalysts for use in one-pot cascade reactions. The second example illustrates use of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticle supported acid catalysts for organic transformations. The third case presents novel polymer brush supported Cobalt-salen catalysts for the enantioselective, hydrolytic kinetic resolution of epoxides. A fourth case presents novel, magnetic polymer brush supported organic and organometallic catalysts for organic transformations. The fifth example illustrates polymer and silica supported ruthenium-salen catalysts for the asymmetric cyclopropanation of olefins. The overall goal of this thesis work is to develop novel supports and immobilization techniques to advance the field of hybrid organic/inorganic catalysts for the production of fine chemical and pharmaceutical intermediates.