Time-varying Finite Dimensional Basis for Tracking Contour Deformations
Tannenbaum, Allen R.
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We consider the problem of tracking the boundary contour of a moving and deforming object from a sequence of images. If the motion of the "object" or region of interest is constrained (e.g. rigid or approximately rigid), the contour motion can be efficiently represented by a small number of parameters, e.g. the affine group. But if the "object" is arbitrarily deforming, each contour point can move independently. Contour deformation then forms an infinite (in practice, very large), dimensional space. Direct application of particle filters for large dimensional problems is impractical, due to the reduction in effective particle size as dimension increases. But in most real problems, at any given time, "most of the contour deformation" occurs in a small number of dimensions ("effective basis") while the residual deformation in the rest of the state space ("residual space") is "small". The effective basis may be fixed or time varying. Based on this assumption, we modify the particle filtering method to perform sequential importance sampling only on the effective basis dimensions, while replacing it with deterministic mode tracking in residual space (PF-MT). We develop the PF-MT idea for contour tracking. Techniques for detecting effective basis dimension change and estimating the new effective basis are presented. Tracking results on simulated and real sequences are shown and compared with past work.