Quasiperiodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Bose-Einstein Condensates in Periodic Lattices and Superlattices
van Noort, Martijn
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We employ KAM theory to rigorously investigate the transition between quasiperiodic and chaotic dynamics in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in periodic lattices and superlattices. Toward this end, we apply a coherent structure ansatz to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to obtain a parametrically forced Duffing equation describing the spatial dynamics of the condensate. For shallow-well, intermediate-well, and deep-well potentials, we find KAM tori and Aubry-Mather sets to prove that one obtains mostly quasiperiodic dynamics for condensate wave functions of sufficiently large amplitude, where the minimal amplitude depends on the experimentally adjustable BEC parameters. We show that this threshold scales with the square root of the inverse of the scattering length, whereas the rotation number of tori above this threshold is proportional to the amplitude. As a consequence, one obtains the same dynamical picture for lattices of all depths, as an increase in its amplitude essentially only affects scaling in phase space. Our approach is applicable to periodic superlattices with an arbitrary number of rationally dependent wave numbers.