Charge-based analog circuits for reconfigurable smart sensory systems
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The notion of designing circuits based on charge sensing, charge adaptation, and charge programming is explored in this research. This design concept leads to a low-power capacitive sensing interface circuit that has been designed and tested with a MEMS microphone and a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. Moreover, by using the charge programming technique, a designed floating-gate based large-scale field-programmable analog array (FPAA) containing a universal sensor interface sets the stage for reconfigurable smart sensory systems. Based on the same charge programming technique, a compact programmable analog radial-basis-function (RBF) based classifier and a resultant analog vector quantizer have been developed and tested. Measurement results have shown that the analog RBF-based classifier is at least two orders of magnitude more power-efficient than an equivalent digital processor. Furthermore, an adaptive bump circuit that can facilitate unsupervised learning in the analog domain has also been proposed. A projection neural network for a support vector machine, a powerful and more complicated binary classification algorithm, has also been proposed. This neural network is suitable for analog VLSI implementation and has been simulated and verified on the transistor level. These analog classifiers can be integrated at the interface to build smart sensory systems.