Additive stucture, rich lines, and exponential set-expansion
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We will survey some of the major directions of research in arithmetic combinatorics and their connections to other fields. We will then discuss three new results. The first result will generalize a structural theorem from Balog and Szemerédi. The second result will establish a new tool in incidence geometry, which should prove useful in attacking combinatorial estimates. The third result evolved from the famous sum-product problem, by providing a partial categorization of bivariate polynomial set functions which induce exponential expansion on all finite sets of real numbers.