Glycoprotein-mediated interactions of dendritic cells with surfaces of defined chemistries
Shankar, Sucharita P.
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Implanted combination devices comprising both biological as well as biomaterial components may trigger non-specific inflammatory responses against the biomaterial component as well as specific immune responses against the biological component. This specific immune response may be enhanced by the biomaterial, thereby implying a biomaterial-mediated adjuvant effect, or in contrast may be mitigated by the biomaterial. Since adjuvants function by triggering dendritic cell (DC) maturation, biomaterials may regulate DC responses and hence facilitate DC-orchestrated host responses. This research work has focused on examining DC responses to different model self-assembled monolayer (SAM) biomaterial chemistries, as an in vitro readout of the potential of these biomaterials to trigger DC maturation. The underlying hypothesis was that DCs recognize and respond to biomaterials either indirectly through the adsorbed protein layer, specifically through carbohydrate modifications of these proteins, or through carbohydrates inherent in the biomaterial chemistry, using PRRs to initiate an immune response. Towards this goal, DCs were derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by culture with DC differentiation cytokines and the culture systems were characterized as being composed of DCs as well as associated T and B lymphocytes. Culture of DCs on different SAM chemistries implied differential DC responses in terms of morphology, maturation marker expression and allostimulatory capacities as well as distinct underlying mechanisms responsible for these responses. Enzyme-linked lectin (ELLA) assays were used to characterize the profiles of carbohydrates associated with serum/plasma proteins adsorbed to different SAM chemistries. Differential profiles of DC carbohydrate ligands of CLRs were present on different chemistries. Furthermore, the profiles of human serum/plasma proteins adsorbed to and eluted from different SAM chemistries were assessed using immunoblot analysis. Finally, to observe the roles of carbohydrates in supporting DC maturation in the presence of a biomaterial, DCs were cultured in the presence of partially de-glycosylated FBS from which DC carbohydrate ligands were selectively removed. This research is significant towards the ultimate development of optimal design criteria for biomaterials for use in diverse tissue-engineering or vaccine development applications for which a wide spectrum of adjuvant effects are required.