The impact of interconnect process variations and size effects for gigascale integration
Lopez, Gerald Gabriel
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The objective of this research is to demonstrate the impact of interconnect process variations, line-edge roughness and size effects on interconnect effective resistivity and ultimately chip performance. The investigation is accomplished through five tasks. In Task I, a new closed-form effective resistivity model, which is a function of line-edge roughness (LER), surface specularity and grain boundary reflectivity, is derived. In Task II, a critical path model is enhanced by including interconnect parasitics using the model in Task I. This enhancement also involves an extensive survey of foundry process data to shed light on the device resistance estimation used in the critical path model in Task II. Task III develops a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation framework called the Fast Interconnect Statistical Simulator (FISS). Using the latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) projections, the FISS projects the impact of interconnect process variations and size effects onto high performance microprocessor units (HP-MPUs). Task IV fabricates metallic interconnect test structures with sub-100nm line-widths. The fifth task statistically calibrates the model from Task I using resistivity data measured from the test structures in Task IV.