Cross-layer optimization for spectral and energy efficiency
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The future success of communication networks hinges on the ability to overcome the mismatch between requested quality of service (QoS) and limited network resources. Spectrum is a natural resource that cannot be replenished and therefore must be used efficiently. On the other hand, energy efficiency (EE) is also becoming increasingly important as battery technology has not kept up with the growing requirements stemming from ubiquitous multimedia applications. The qualities of wireless channels vary with both time and user. We use channel state information (CSI) to dynamically assign wireless resources to users to improve spectral and energy efficiency. We first investigate a series of general treatments of exploiting CSI in a distributed way to control the medium access to maximize spectral efficiency for networks with arbitrary topologies and traffic distributions. As the first step, we propose decentralized optimization for multichannel random access (DOMRA), which uses local CSI and two-hop static neighborhood information to achieve performance comparable with the global optimal channel-aware Aloha. The generic framework developed in DOMRA proved to be very useful in improving cellular networks as well. We develop cochannel interference avoidance (CIA) medium access control (MAC), which is optimized by DOMRA, to mitigate the downlink severe cochannel interference that is usually experienced by cell-edge users. Aloha-based schemes have low channel utilization efficiency because of the collision of entire data frames. We further develop channel-aware distributed MAC (CAD-MAC), which avoids collision through signaling negotiation ahead of data transmission. CAD-MAC completely resolves the contention of networks with arbitrary topologies, achieves throughput close to centralized schedulers, and is robust to any channel uncertainty. Then we address energy-efficient wireless communications while emphasizing orthogonal frequency multiple access (OFDMA) systems. We first discover the global optimal energy-efficient link adaptation in frequency-selective channels using the strict quasiconcavity of energy efficiency functions. This link adaptation optimally balances the power consumption of electronic circuits and that of data transmission on each subchannel. The global optimal energy-efficient transmission can be obtained using iterative operations, which may be complex to be implemented in a practical system. Besides, running iterative algorithms consumes additional energy. Hence, we further develop a closed-form link adaptation scheme, which performs close to the global optimum. Besides, since subchannel allocation in OFDMA systems determines the energy efficiency of all users, we develop closed-form resource allocation approaches that achieve near-optimal performance too. In an interference-free environment, a tradeoff between EE and spectral efficiency (SE) exists, as increasing transmit power always improves SE but not necessarily EE. We continue the investigation in interference-limited scenarios and show that since increased transmit power also brings higher interference to the network, SE is not necessarily higher and the tradeoff is improved. Especially, in interference-dominated regimes, e.g., local area networks, both spectral- and energy-efficient communications desire optimized time-division protocols and the proposed DOMRA, CIA-MAC, and CAD-MAC can be used to improve both spectral and energy efficiency.