Lysophosphatidic acid, vitamin D, and p53: a novel signaling axis in cell death and differentiation
Hurst-Kennedy, Jennifer Lynne
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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the simplest of the glycerol lipids and regulates a number of cellular processes such as morphological changes, migration, proliferation, and inhibition of apoptosis. LPA exerts these effects through activation of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) LPA1-6 and the intracellular fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). The overall goal of this thesis was to determine the mechanisms by which LPA enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. The project was divided into three studies: 1) to determine the mechanism of LPA-mediated inhibition of p53 in A549 lung carcinoma cells, 2) to investigate the regulation of growth plate chondrocytes by LPA, and 3) to determine the mechanisms of LPA-mediated effects in the growth plate. In the first study, evidence is provided that LPA reduces the cellular abundance of the tumor suppressor p53 in A549 lung carcinoma cells. The LPA effect depends upon increased proteasomal degradation of p53 and it results in a corresponding decrease in p53-mediated transcription. The result of LPA-mediated inhibition of p53 in A549 cells is enhanced resistance to chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis. In the second study, the role of LPA in resting zone chondrocytes (RC cells) was investigated. RC cells are regulated by 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)[subscript2]D [subscript 3]] via a phospholipase D-dependent pathway, suggesting downstream phospholipid metabolites are involved. In this study, we showed that 24R,25(OH)[subscript 2]D[subscript 3] stimulates rat costochondral RC cells to release LPA. Additionally, we demonstrated that RC cells respond to LPA with increased proliferation, maturation, and inhibition of apoptosis. In the final study, the mechanism of LPA and 24R,25(OH)[subscript 2]D[subscript 3]-mediated inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis was further investigated. Our data show that 24R,25(OH)[subscript 2]D[subscript 3] inhibits apoptosis through Ca⁺⁺, PLD, and PLC signaling and through LPA/Gαi/PI[subscript 3]K/mdm2-mediated degradation of p53, resulting in decreased caspase-3 activity. Collectively, our data establish LPA, vitamin D, and p53 as an anti-apoptotic signaling axis.