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dc.contributor.authorPolavarapu, Nalinien_US
dc.contributor.authorBowen, Nathan J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMcDonald, John F.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2010-04-21T14:24:50Z
dc.date.available2010-04-21T14:24:50Z
dc.date.issued2006-06-26
dc.identifier.citationNalini Polavarapu, Nathan J. Bowen and John F. McDonald, "Identification, characterization and comparative genomics of chimpanzee endogenous retroviruses,"Genome Biology, 2006, 7:R51en_US
dc.identifier.issn1465-6906
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1853/32530
dc.description© 2006 Polavarapu et al.; BioMed Central Ltd. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.com/2006/7/6/R51en_US
dc.descriptionDOI: 10.1186/gb-2006-7-6-r51
dc.description.abstractBackground: Retrotransposons, the most abundant and widespread class of eukaryotic transposable elements, are believed to play a significant role in mutation and disease and to have contributed significantly to the evolution of genome structure and function. The recent sequencing of the chimpanzee genome is providing an unprecedented opportunity to study the functional significance of these elements in two closely related primate species and to better evaluate their role in primate evolution. Results: We report here that the chimpanzee genome contains at least 42 separate families of endogenous retroviruses, nine of which were not previously identified. All but two (CERV 1/ PTERV1 and CERV 2) of the 42 families of chimpanzee endogenous retroviruses were found to have orthologs in humans. Molecular analysis (PCR and Southern hybridization) of CERV 2 elements demonstrates that this family is present in chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and old-world monkeys but absent in human, orangutan and new-world monkeys. A survey of endogenous retroviral positional variation between chimpanzees and humans determined that approximately 7% of all chimpanzee-human INDEL variation is associated with endogenous retroviral sequences. Conclusion: Nine families of chimpanzee endogenous retroviruses have been transpositionally active since chimpanzees and humans diverged from a common ancestor. Seven of these transpositionally active families have orthologs in humans, one of which has also been transpositionally active in humans since the human-chimpanzee divergence about six million years ago. Comparative analyses of orthologous regions of the human and chimpanzee genomes have revealed that a significant portion of INDEL variation between chimpanzees and humans is attributable to endogenous retroviruses and may be of evolutionary significance.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherGeorgia Institute of Technologyen_US
dc.subjectHumanen_US
dc.subjectChimpanzeesen_US
dc.subjectMutationsen_US
dc.subjectEndogenous retrovirusesen_US
dc.subjectRetrotransposonsen_US
dc.titleIdentification, characterization and comparative genomics of chimpanzee endogenous retrovirusesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.corporatenameGeorgia Institute of Technology. School of Biologyen_US
dc.publisher.originalBioMed Central
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/gb-2006-7-6-r51


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