Microscopic and spectroscopic studies of growth and electronic structure of epitaxial graphene
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It is generally believed that the Si technology is going to hit a road block soon. Amongst all the potential candidates, graphene shows the most promise as replacement material for the aging Si technology. This has caused a tremendous stir in the scientific community. This excitement stems from the fact that graphene exhibits unique electronic properties. Physically, it is a two-dimensional network of sp₂bonded carbon atoms. The unique symmetry of two equivalent sublattices gives rise to a linear energy dispersion for the charge carriers. As a consequence, the charge carriers behave like massless Dirac particles with a constant speed of c/300, where c is the speed of light. The sublattice symmetry gives rise to unique half-integer quantum hall effect, Klein's paradox, and weak antilocalization. In this research work, I was able to successfully study the growth and electronic structure of EG on SiC(0001), in ultra-high vacuum and low-vacuum furnace environment. I used STM to study the growth at an atomic scale and macroscopic scale. With STM imaging, I studied the distinct properties of commonly observed interface region (layer 0), first graphene layer, and the second graphene layer. I was able to clearly resolve graphene lattice in both layer 1 and 2. High resolution imaging of the defects showed a unique scattering pattern. Raman spectroscopy measurements were done to resolve the layer dependent signatures of EG. The characteristic Raman 2D peak was found to be suppressed in layer 1, and a single Lorentzian was seen in layer 2. Ni metal islands were grown on EG by e-beam deposition. STM/ STS measurements were done to study the changes in doping and the electronic structure of EG with distance from the metal islands.