Design, simulation, and characterization toolset for nano-scale photonic crystal devices
Reinke, Charles M.
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The objective of this research is to present a set of powerful simulation, design, and characterization tools suitable for studying novel nanophotonic devices. The simulation tools include a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain code adapted for parallel computing that allows for a wide range of simulation conditions and material properties to be studied, as well as a semi-analytical Green's function-based complex mode technique for studying loss in photonic crystal waveguides. The design tools consist of multifunctional photonic crystal-based template that has been simulated with nonlinear effects and measured experimentally, and planar slab waveguide structure that provides highly efficient second harmonic generation is a chip-scale device suitable for photonic integrated circuit applications. The characterization tool is composed of a phase-sensitive measurement system using a lock-in amplifier and high-precision optical stages, suitable for probing the optical characteristics of nanoscale devices. The high signal-to-noise ratio and phase shift data provided by the lock-in amplifier allow for accurate transmission measurements as well as a phase spectrum that contains information about the propagation behavior of the device beyond what is provided by the amplitude spectrum alone.