The effect of hydrodynamic stress on plant embryo development
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The effect of steady shear stress on somatic embryos were investigated in a flow chamber and evaluated at different time intervals using microscopy technique. The development of meristematic cell clusters, i.e. the immature embryos, into a polarized somatic embryo, and the effect on the localization of the suspensor cells that form during development of the immature embryos, were studied as a function of shear stresses. With the distribution and growth rate of the meristematic and suspensor cells, the effect of stress on the embryo development was established. Furthermore, the effect of shear stress on the cells at molecular level, the reaction of integrin-like proteins, the production of reactive oxygen species and the pore size of the cell walls involved in the shear stress responses, were investigated with molecular techniques. In general, shear stress inhibits meristematic cells growth. Meristematic cells grow fastest at shear rate of 86 s-1 among all the tested shear stress conditions. By combining the results of meristematic cells growth and suspensor cells formation, it suggests that there is a critical shear rate between 86 and 140 s-1, at which no suspensor cells form. The unidirectional flow with different shear stresses helps the polarized growth and the unidirectional alignment of suspensor cells. Reactive oxygen species and integrin-like protein are detected in the stressed cells as cellular responses to shear stresses. By monitoring the pore size and uptake time of cells to macromolecules with solute-exclusive experiments, it suggests that the stressed cells expedite the response to plasmolyzing components that are used to induce maturation treatment thus affect the response to maturation stimuli.