In search of water vapor on Jupiter: laboratory measurements of the microwave properties of water vapor and simulations of Jupiter's microwave emission in support of the Juno mission
Karpowicz, Bryan Mills
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This research has involved the conduct of a series of laboratory measurements of the centimeter-wavelength opacity of water vapor along with the development of a hybrid radiative transfer ray-tracing simulator for the atmosphere of Jupiter which employs a model for water vapor opacity derived from the measurements. For this study an existing Georgia Tech high-sensitivity microwave measurement system (Hanley and Steﬀes , 2007) has been adapted for pressures ranging from 12-100 bars, and a corresponding temperature range of 293-525°K. Water vapor is measured in a mixture of hydrogen and helium. Using these measurements which covered a wavelength range of 6--20 cm, a new model is developed for water vapor absorption under Jovian conditions. In conjunction with our laboratory measurements, and the development of a new model for water vapor absorption, we conduct sensitivity studies of water vapor microwave emission in the Jovian atmosphere using a hybrid radiative transfer ray-tracing simulator. The approach has been used previously for Saturn (Hoﬀman, 2001), and Venus (Jenkins et al., 2001). This model has been adapted to include the antenna patterns typical of the NASA Juno Mission microwave radiometer (NASA/Juno -MWR) along with Jupiter's geometric parameters (oblateness), and atmospheric conditions. Using this adapted model we perform rigorous sensitivity tests for water vapor in the Jovian atmosphere. This work will directly improve our understanding of microwave absorption by atmospheric water vapor at Jupiter, and improve retrievals from the Juno microwave radiometer. Indirectly, this work will help to refine models for the formation of Jupiter and the entire solar system through an improved understanding of the planet-wide abundance of water vapor which will result from the successful opreation of the Juno Microwave Radiometer (Juno-MWR).