An analysis of the domestic power line infrastructure to support indoor real-time localization
Stuntebeck, Erich Peter
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The vision of ubiquitous computing is to seamlessly integrate information processing into everyday objects and activities. Part of this integration is an awareness on the part of a system of its user's context. Context can be composed of several variables --- such as a user's current activity, goals, or state of mind --- but location (both past and present) is almost always a key component. Determining location outdoors has become quite simple and pervasive with today's low-cost handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Technologies enabling the location of people and objects to be determined while indoors, however, have lagged due to their extensive infrastructure requirements and associated cost. Just as GPS receivers utilize radio signals from satellites to triangulate their position, an indoor real-time locating system (RTLS) must also make use of some feature of the environment to determine the location of mobile units. Since the signal from GPS satellites is not sufficiently strong to penetrate the structure of a building, indoor RTLS systems must either use some existing feature of the environment or generate a new one. This typically requires a large amount of infrastructure (e.g. specialized RF receivers, additional 802.11 access points, RFID readers, etc.) to be deployed, making indoor RTLSs impractical for the home. While numerous techniques have been proposed for locating people and objects within a building, none of these has yet proven to be a viable option in terms of cost, complexity of installation, and accuracy for home users. This dissertation builds on work by Patel et al. in which the home power lines are used to radiate a low-frequency wireless RF signal that mobile tags use for location fingerprinting. Leveraging the existing power line permits this system to operate on far less additional infrastructure than existing solutions such as cellular (GSM and CDMA), 802.11b/g, and FM radio based systems. The contributions of this research to indoor power line-based RTLS are threefold. First, I examine the temporal stability of a power line based RTLS system's output. Fingerprinting-based RTLS relies upon some feature of the environment, such as the amplitude of an RF signal, to be stable over time at a particular location (temporal stability), but to change in space (spatial differentiability). I show that a power line-based RTLS can be made much more resistant to temporal instability in individual fingerprint components by utilizing a wide-band RF fingerprint. Next, I directly compare the temporal stability of the raw features used by various fingerprinting based indoor RTLSs, such as cellular, 802.11b/g, and FM radio. In doing so, I show that a power line based indoor RTLS has an inherent advantage in temporal stability over these other methods. Finally, I characterize the power line as a receiving antenna for low-powered wireless devices within the home, thus allowing the power line to not only transmit the RF signals used for fingerprinting, but also to receive the sensed features reported by location tags. Here, I show that the powerline is a viable receiver for these devices and that the globally available 27.12 MHz ISM band is a good choice of frequency for communications.