Transactivation of Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor by Bradykinin type 2 Receptor via heterodimerization
Vincent, Karla Kristine
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Although a long standing convention maintained that G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) exist in the plasma membrane solely as monomers, substantial work over the last two decades has demonstrated that these ubiquitous receptors can and in many cases, preferentially, exist as homodimers, heterodimers, or higher order oligomers. Often, two GPCRs of the same class heterodimerize; it is less common for two GPCRs of different signaling pathways to interact. The work presented here studied the physical and functional interaction of two GPCRs from discrete classes, the Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor (β2AR), a Gαs-coupled receptor, and Bradykinin type 2 Receptor (Bk2R), a Gαq coupled receptor. These data show that Bk2R and β2AR are physically coupled when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and in freshly isolated murine ventricular myocytes, two systems that endogenously express these receptors. This physical coupling led to functional consequences in heterologous and endogenous expression systems, as Bk2R was able to transactivate β2AR signaling via its direct interaction with the receptor. Furthermore, coexpression of Bk2R shifted the dose response curve of β2AR for its selective agonist rightward in Xenopus oocyte electrophysiology experiments, suggesting the presence of Bk2R negatively affected β2AR native pharmacology. Up to thirty minutes of either bradykinin (BK) or isoproterenol exposure did not change the relative amount of Bk2R/β2AR heterodimer in PC12 cells, a rat adrenal medulla tumor cell line that endogenously expresses these receptors. Despite the obvious signaling consequences, the Bk2R/β2AR heterodimer accounted for only 10% of the total β2AR protein detected and 20% of the total Bk2R protein detected. When other Bk2R-specific ligands were also tested to examine the extent of β2AR transactivation, our data showed that both Lys-des-Arg-Bradykinin, a Bk2R partial agonist and NPC 567, a Bk2R antagonist, transactivated β2AR to the same extent as BK. Taken together, our data provide a novel mode of receptor regulation and signaling via Bk2R/β2AR heterodimerization. Because a large percentage of therapeutics target GPCRs, a greater understanding of how a GPCR heterodimer functions could be beneficial for targeting new drugs and refining existing drugs. Understanding the Bk2R/β2AR heterodimer provides a new perspective on the myriad of fucntional consequences that occur when a GPCR is activated.