A framework of passive-active-constructive study techniques: a divergence between assigned and reported behaviors
Bujak, Keith R.
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An educational framework proposed by Chi (2009) aims to link overt study activities with outcomes via the underlying cognitive processes experienced by learners. Activities are classified along a continuum of passive, active, and constructive . Overt activities--¬such as reading, highlighting, and self-explaining--are grouped according to the hypothesized cognitive processes they engage. The framework posits that constructive activities yield the best learning, passive yield the poorest, and active is somewhere in between. Although these hypotheses are not supported by this experiment, there is evidence to suggest that college students employ study techniques that go beyond what they are asked to do. Also, the content of the text to be studied is potentially an important factor for determining the type of studying learners do regardless of what they are asked to do. In sum, although the framework is supported by many other studies, there might be additional variables that need to be considered when implementing this framework.