Dynamics and control of a small-scale mobile boom crane
Maleki, Ehsan A.
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Boom cranes are one of the most dynamically complicated types of cranes because they possess rotational joints as opposed to the linear tracks of bridge and gantry cranes. In addition, if the boom crane is placed on a mobile base, additional complexity is added to the system. However, mobile boom cranes have huge potential benefits as they can be quickly transported from one location to another. Furthermore, if they utilize their mobile base during lifting operations, then they can have an extremely large workspace. All cranes share the same limiting weakness; the payload oscillates when the crane moves. A command-generation approach is taken to control the payload oscillation. Input shaping is one such command-generation technique that modifies the original reference command by convolving it with a series of impulses. The shaped command produced by the convolution can then move the crane without inducing payload oscillation. Input shaping can accommodate parameter uncertainties, nonlinearities, multiple modes of vibration, and has been shown to be compatible with human operators. This thesis focuses on three aspects of mobile boom cranes: 1) dynamic analysis, 2) input-shaping control, and 3) experimental testing. A majority of the thesis focuses on analyzing and describing the complicated dynamics of mobile boom cranes. Then, various input-shaping controllers are designed and tested, including two-mode shapers for double-pendulum dynamics. In order to experimentally verify the simulation results, a small-scale mobile boom crane has been constructed. The details of the mobile boom crane and its important features are presented and discussed. Details of the software used to control the crane are also presented. Then, several different experimental protocols are introduced and the results presented. In addition, a set of operator performance studies that analyze human operators maneuvering the mobile boom crane through an obstacle course is presented.