Assessing internal contamination levels for fission product inhalation using a portal monitor
Freibert, Emily Jane
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In the event of a nuclear power plant accident, fission products could be released into the atmosphere potentially affecting the health of local citizens. In order to triage the possibly large number of people impacted, a detection device is needed that can acquire data quickly and that is sensitive to internal contamination. The portal monitor TPM-903B was investigated for use in the event of a fission product release. A list of fission products released from a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) was generated and separated into two groups--Group 1 (gamma- and beta-emitting fission products) and Group 2 (strictly beta-emitting fission products.) Group one fission products were used in the previously validated Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) model of the portal monitor. Two MIRD anthropomorphic phantom types were implemented in the MCNP model--the Adipose Male and Child phantoms. Dose and Risk Calculation software (DCAL) provided inhalation biokinetic data that were applied to the output of the MCNP modeling to determine the radionuclide concentrations in each organ as a function of time. For each phantom type, these data were used to determine the total body counts associated with each individual gamma-emitting fission product. Corresponding adult and child dose coefficients were implemented to determine the total body counts per 250 mSv. A weighted sum of all of the isotopes involved was performed. The ratio of dose associated with gamma-emitting fission products to the total of all fission products was determined based on corresponding dose coefficients and relative abundance. This ratio was used to project the total body counts corresponding to 250mSv for the entire fission product release inhalation--including all types of radiation. The developed procedure sheets will be used by first response personnel in the event of a fission product release.