iSAM: Fast Incremental Smoothing and Mapping with Efficient Data Association
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We introduce incremental smoothing and mapping (iSAM), a novel approach to the problem of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that addresses the data association problem and allows real-time application in large-scale environments. We employ smoothing to obtain the complete trajectory and map without the need for any approximations, exploiting the natural sparsity of the smoothing information matrix. A QR-factorization of this information matrix is at the heart of our approach. It provides efficient access to the exact covariances as well as to conservative estimates that are used for online data association. It also allows recovery of the exact trajectory and map at any given time by backsubstitution. Instead of refactoring in each step, we update the QR-factorization whenever a new measurement arrives. We analyze the effect of loops, and show how our approach extends to the non-linear case. Finally, we provide experimental validation of the overall non-linear algorithm based on the standard Victoria Park data set with unknown correspondences.